When we are listening the music while driving, at the first time it makes us distracted. It would influences driving safely, but we can be accustomed to listening the music according to habituation feature of the preconscious processing. It would awake our consciousness when dishabituation ouccurs, voluming up the sound of the music.
Trying multiplication through 12 and listening music is very hard because I am doing dual task at the same time. The speed of task and accuracy of processing would be influenced each other. However, According to Neisser and Becklen (1975), practices can make people do dual task at the same time because the task is about skill not special cognitive mechanism. Therefore, we can ignore one activity, processing automatically and do the other work finally after practices. In addition, according to attentional- resources theories of selective attention, the use of two different modality attentional resources would not interfere seriously each other. People can use auditory sense for listening and retrieve at the same time.
I learned some principles of creating online instruction from the book titled “ e-learning and the science of instruction”( Clark & Mayer, 2008). Modality principle emphasizes the audio narration for on screen text. The memory requires more times for text presentation rather than audio presentation. In addition, people can both two channels: audio and visual in their cognitive process, it is not concentrating on the only one channel. Therefore, using audio narration along with text supports learners for strong and consistent learning effectiveness. However, we are also careful of the redundancy principle which emphasizes using proper amount of audio effects not overloading. The audio narration would be different from noise, but I just focus on the audio narration for instruction.
This is a diagram about chapter 3 and it will be helpful to understand attention and consciousness.