According to Community of Inquiry model which Anderson et al developed as a conceptual model of online learning (2000), teaching presence is one of critical components which can make meaningful learning results. Teaching presence can be created three components: design and organization of learning experience, encourage discourse, direct instruction.
- Design and organization
Community of learning model: This model uses synchronous or asynchronous virtual class rooms on the campus classroom.
Independent study model: It is for learners who work by themselves and learn at their own pace, so it is always selected for online learning. Depending on learners’ preferences and needs, it can be designed in paced or unpaced models.
- Encourage discourse
Discourse creates the community inquiry and gives individuals to have chance to develop their own thoughts and articulate their opinions. In addition, learners get rid of their misconceptions.
To do this, e-teachers
Develop trust and safety in the electronic communication
Susan Levine (2002)
- Instructors start discussion with weekly based-posting.
- Instructors let students focus the questions regarding ongoing discussion.
- Instructors let students post at least two or more, reflecting what they learn from the lesson.
- Instructors let students contribute for discussion beyond a ditto.
Nada Dabbagh (2000)
- Discussion posting should be evenly distributed.
- Discussion should be a minimum of one paragraph and maximum of two paragraphs.
- Giving reasoning why you agree or disagree should be applied for discussion.
- Address questions as much as possible.
- Quote from the articles with page numbers.
- Building threaded responses.
- Related, prior knowledge integration
- Proper etiquette should be used.
- Direct instruction
Cognitive apprenticeship Model:
This model emphasizes teacher’s role for helping students in the context, providing instructional support to students. Through modeling-scaffolding-fading – coaching process, teacher shows expertise and supports students’ development of the knowledge.
Salmon’s five stage Model
This model emphasized teachers ‘role as a facilitators through 5 stage of learning.
As Anderson said in his conclusion, we are on early stage in technological and pedagogical development of online learning. All models suggested ideal methods or process of effective learning, each of them has some weakness in certain aspects. I think online learning will grow more student-centered learning. It means many prospective learners for online learning are different from traditional students and their needs and learning styles are various. To meet learners’ needs, online learning should be designed for learner-centered. In addition, I think formal (public) education and private education would be developed differently. For private education, it will develop social functions more than one of present. It means it is designed with independent study model, but the facilitating discourse component will be developed for current learners’ needs. For public education, community inquiry model is applied, considering learner paced environment and improving learners’ satisfaction. Future research and studies for online learning environment will be needed for revolution of technology engaged education.