Ec0168's Blog

Just another weblog

Model of online learning April 19, 2010

Filed under: CECS 5510 Technology- based learning environments — Echang @ 8:07 pm

According to Community of Inquiry model which Anderson et al developed as a conceptual model of online learning (2000), teaching presence is one of critical components which can make meaningful learning results. Teaching presence can be created three components: design and organization of learning experience, encourage discourse, direct instruction.

  • Design and organization

Community of learning model: This model uses synchronous or asynchronous virtual class rooms on the campus classroom.

Independent study modelIt is for learners who work by themselves and learn at their own pace, so it is always selected for online learning. Depending on learners’ preferences and needs, it can be designed in paced or unpaced models.

  • Encourage discourse

Discourse creates the community inquiry and gives individuals to have chance to develop their own thoughts and articulate their opinions. In addition, learners get rid of their misconceptions.

To do this, e-teachers

Develop trust and safety in the electronic communication

Use icebreakers

Susan Levine (2002)

  1. Instructors start discussion with weekly based-posting.
  2. Instructors let students focus the questions regarding ongoing discussion.
  3. Instructors let students post at least two or more, reflecting what they learn from the lesson.
  4. Instructors let students contribute for discussion beyond a ditto.

Nada Dabbagh (2000)

  1. Discussion posting should be evenly distributed.
  2. Discussion should be a minimum of one paragraph and maximum of two paragraphs.
  3. Giving reasoning why you agree or disagree should be applied for discussion.
  4. Address questions as much as possible.
  5. Quote from the articles with page numbers.
  6.  Building threaded responses.
  7. Related, prior knowledge integration
  8. Proper etiquette should be used.


  • Direct instruction

Cognitive apprenticeship Model:

This model emphasizes teacher’s role for helping students in the context, providing instructional support to students. Through modeling-scaffolding-fading – coaching process, teacher shows expertise and supports students’ development of the knowledge.

Salmon’s five stage Model

This model emphasized teachers ‘role as a facilitators through 5 stage of learning.

As Anderson said in his conclusion, we are on early stage in technological and pedagogical development of online learning. All models suggested ideal methods or process of effective learning, each of them has some weakness in certain aspects. I think online learning will grow more student-centered learning. It means many prospective learners for online learning are different from traditional students and their needs and learning styles are various. To meet learners’ needs, online learning should be designed for learner-centered. In addition, I think formal (public) education and private education would be developed differently. For private education, it will develop social functions more than one of present. It means it is designed with independent study model, but the facilitating discourse component will be developed for current learners’ needs. For public education, community inquiry model is applied, considering learner paced environment and improving learners’ satisfaction. Future research and studies for online learning environment will be needed for revolution of technology engaged education.


theory April 18, 2010

Filed under: CECS 5300 Cognitive Psychology — Echang @ 4:51 am
Tags: ,
Activity 2: Blog Reflection – Based on what you read, what theory to you put the most faith in? How does it influence how you teach, train, learn, etc.? Why?
I like constructivism theory because it describes what education is for. I think that knowledge is not sticking to  certain shape or certain meaning. Knowledge would be grow or development. I liked the concept of “scaffolding”.
I ‘ve heard that Bruner is the first person to mention scaffolding in education. After that Vitgosky described  what ZPD is. I think we need to find ZPD and provide proper scaffolding within ZPD for children education.
I think the teachers role is to support students’ learning, not dominate in education. From this pint of view, teachers have to more focuss on the students’ problems or suffering than knowledge delivery. 



3-D learning context

Filed under: CECS 5300 Cognitive Psychology — Echang @ 4:49 am
Tags: ,

Activity 3: Blog Reflection – Download and create an avatar in Second Life or or some other 3-D online space. Many theorists and researchers are saying that this is the next learning context. How do you feel about this based on your experiences there? How would a 3-D learning context improve learning and/or cognition? How might it hurt learning and/or cognition?


I am trying to investigate 3D learning in SL to apply a component of REAL (Rich Environments for Active Learning). I mean 3 D learning envirnment will be used as a tool for current instruction to one of REALs.

According to Grabinger, REALs are comprehensive instructional systems that:

  • Are involved with constructivist philosophies and theories
  • Promote learning in authentic contexts
  • Encourage students to have responsibility and initiative
  • Develop a cooperative learning
  • Utilize generative learning activities for high-level thinking process
  • Assess student progress in content and learning to learn through realistic tasks and performances

From this point of view Second Life can be one of REALs.

If a instruction is designed following Cognitive Flexibility Theory ( Jacobson & Spiro, 1992), Learners can experience multiple forms of knowledge presentation in several kinds of media in 3D MUVE( SL) sharing audio or video learning objects. Through these activities, learners keep their knowledge as encoding specificity which can be easily retrieved when it is needed in other situation.

3D learning can provide authentic learning contexts like other MUVEs, so learners can explore in virtual environment, having realistic experiences. With manipulating avatar, learners can be involved to learning deeply, taking ownership of their learning.

Voice chatting and text chatting are good tool for synchronous discussion, narrowing distances between students. This effective communication method can accelerate team work in virtual environment. If instructions are designed as problem- solving tasks, learners can be more active with their peers in realistic contexts.

I think the most frustration in online is that I can’t see how other people are doing. If I am in the traditional F2F classroom, I can easily ask or observe what other peers are doing when I am confused. However, in online class, I am really frustrated because I don’t have any model to follow. As a foreigner, it is not easy to post my question concretely and clearly. That’s why I tried to form virtual study group in SL the other day. I can observe when I see the writing which other people posted in the online forum. However, I really want to have more interaction in visual, auditory methods. In SL, I can apply cognitive apprenticeship. Actually I can easily learn how to use SL functions watching video tutorials. In SL, I can make video clips for instruction in various contexts.

For authentic assessment, I haven’t thought SL as a assessment tool, but I have a quick opinion about debate or conference types. Since my interesting area is writing or foreign language acquisition, articulation is very important role in my instruction as development cognitive process. From this point of view, I can use SL as a assesment tool to articulate what learners are thinking. Articulation in SL would be a good step to develop deeper cognitive process.

My concern is age of audience group for the instruction design. I am thinking 3-5 grade of elementary school for my target group which is not allowed to sign up SL. Instead of this I have heard that there is another MUVE, Reaction Grid. Is it for younger?  If, so, it will be another story.

Any way, 3D learning will be a good REAL.


reasoning April 16, 2010

Filed under: CECS 5300 Cognitive Psychology — Echang @ 11:11 pm

Activity 3: Blog Reflection – Try to have a conversation with someone in which you try to get them to do something (i.e. eat a packet of catsup, shave a cat, etc.) that is kind of or really odd in two different scenarios. In the first, you develop a strong argument with 4 or more reasons why they should decide to do what you want. In a second situation, provide only one reason and make it pretty weak (i.e. Give me an A in class even though I have done no work this semester. My cat has been trying to explode my head using its mind.) Tell what happens.

I am always looking for reasonings for persuading my kid to do something, but I don’t want to force her to do something. One day, I found some good persuasive reasoning for kids. It was a book,  Kids & Co, winning business tactics for every family (2003) written by Ros Jay.

According to Ray, we can apply business skills for kid education. In other words, just like dealing with customers, we need to respect kid’s opinions and look at their situation from kid’s point of view. The skills are introduced as customer service, sales skills, negotiation skills, motivation skills, management skills, team work skills. I have used these skills to provide reasonings for why I want my daughter to do certain things. For example, mom needs to go to the market with children who are watching TV program. However it is very hard for them to stop watching for shopping, because they like the TV program and Shopping is more boring than watching TV. At this time, mom can suggest them to record the program and them watch it later or go to buy ice cream to the market. Suggesting from children’s view point, mom is more persuasive than just saying it is important to go to the market right now. Suggesting two choices, they will choose one of them, and it means they will go to market now. Likewise, if customer wants to buy a hat, the sales person asks what color or which design the customer like more. That means customer will buy one now. It seems to be marketing principles or distract them, but it is effective because they are satisfied with choosing by themselves.

Likewise, to do this kind of task, we can make reasoning which audience can choose. You just design the reasoning leading them to doing it. In addition, the contents of reasoning should be made from audience view point.


Virtual Learning Team facilitating tips

Filed under: CECS 5510 Technology- based learning environments — Echang @ 5:47 pm
Tags: ,

Luetkehans, L. & Bailey, M.L. (1999). Facilitating Virtual Learning Teams in Online Learning Environments. In B. Collis & R. Oliver (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 1999 (pp. 1123-1127). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from

Dr. Luetkehans (1999) provided these tips for facilitating Virtual Learning Team .

Search for learning scenarios and/or RLOs that you think will work very well for virtual teams. Share these in your blog. Come up with at least two examples.


Once I tried to form a virtual small study group in SL for synchronous discussion. Even though it was difficult to meet together at the same time, I am still considering virtual environments like Second life as future learning environments for dynamic interaction.

  • Scenario 1 discussion

First of all, I like to meet my online peers in the virtual environment for voice chatting or chatting as discussion tool. Our avatars can meet there and talk each other. Through this activity, I can get rid of feeling of distance and form trust.

How to chat videos:

Voice chat setup

Voice chat etiquette

There are some series for chatting: who’s talking, how to improve my hearing, private calls, speaking gesture, how to turn on lip sync, record voice chat

Audacity program download for recording ( this is little bit hard to understand)

Menu direction: Edit-Preferences- voice chat

  • Scenario 2 Power Point Presentation

  1. Teleport to Escribir Park
  2. Activate local chat
  3. Position avatar for PPT
  4. Use hands-free chat
  5. Direct avatar’s look
  6. Activate Lip sync.

Usually creating PPT presentation is assigned for team work. I think to do this assignment in Second Life will be a good experience for teamwork. 

  • Scenario3 Video making in SL


I have seen a video clip which a team created for their own team project for instructional designing. It was very impressive as an audience. They could not meet in person, but they met in the virtual environment and discussed about their projects videotaping the moment. At that time, I just shared my ideas through e-mail and wikispaces. They showed that they discussed in the discussion room, skating rink, in the sky about their project. While watching the video, I thought I was with them actually.

However, I am still looking for the way how to make one.

  • Scenario4 Virtual quest

This is 3D Merlot in Second life. You can do many activities or project from here.

You can start a quest with classmate in 3D Melot.



decision making April 15, 2010

Filed under: CECS 5300 Cognitive Psychology — Echang @ 9:27 pm
Tags: ,

How we make decisions?

This is some ways to decide.

How is it related with  ID or online learning?  This is about development phase?


discussion in online learning environment April 13, 2010

I think discussion has many benefits for online learning environment. I mean we get many benefits from not only having process of discussion but also having discussion itself.

With Salmon’s five step model, online learners can participate online discussion for several purposes. In first step, learners can learn how to access and get motivated to participate in discussion. In second stage, students can develop online socialization, building bridges between cultural, social, and learning environments. For third step, students can exchange information which is related to learning contents, discussing, overcoming misconceptions and misunderstandings. Anderson also emphasized its function not only creation of community inquiry, but also means of developing students’ thought and articulating their ideas (p350). Likewise, online discussion helps students’ learning from motivation to collaboration, bridging between gaps.

For my case, I check discussion first to have some ideas before reading or writing. From discussion, I can feel more connected with others or contents. However, sometimes, discussion doesn’t work very well because some barriers: time, language ability, or attitude.

For facilitating discussion, many suggestions for instructors were discussed in Anderson’s article. However, I was interested in posting suggestions which Nada Dabbagh offered. To know these recommendations would be much helpful for online learners in the beginning of the program. If we analyze the ongoing discussion and observe what would be barriers for each, discussion would be designed for more comfortable and satisfied condition.

Recommendations (Nada Dabbagh, 2000)

  1. Postings should be evenly distributed during the discussion period.
  2. Posting should be a minimum of one short paragraph and a maximum of two paragraphs.
  3. If you agree with a posting, then show supporting evidences from readings or examples.
  4. Address the questions as much as possible.
  5. Try to use quotes from the articles with page numbers.
  6. Create thread
  7. Bring in related prior knowledge
  8. Use proper etiquette.

Suggestion for improvement from student’s view

  1. Recommendation 1,2 would be dependent on the question. If the question is designed to develop thought process, students participate like that. The question requires a profound answer, students would be lost not managing it step by step from reading to develop their thoughts.
  2. Recommendation 3-6 would be essential to trigger more relevant replying.
  3. Recommendation 7 is good for students to develop their thoughts and connect what they learned. However, sometimes, it is very difficult for students to retrieve prior knowledge to connect with ongoing discussion. To do this, the discussion would be led in well-structured by instructors. If it is an ill-structured question ( open ended), retrieval cues can be found nearby.
  4.  Recommendation 8 is very important to communicate, but sometimes students feel different because of their cultural backgrounds.

I told some benefits of discussion, introduced some recommendations for posting and gave some improvement tips here. I think communication is crucial for effective learning, so discussion is an essential tool. However, more effective discussion, he components of discussion should be considered from students views as well as instructors views.

Then think about why I am always late?

I am really sick and tired about being late. Every week, I plan and plan, but it never work as planned.

What is wrong with me? I have been thought this issue for long time.

1. Cultural difference

I have never learned in western educational system where discussion or analysis based educaion occurs.

I am not accustomed to arrange my thought and reply in short time. My thought is growing while I am thinking about answering. then I get lost very easily. Therefore, I like to learn how to organize my thoughts and cut off distractions and unnecessary process. In addition, I am a returning student who are not familiar with technology -based education environment. Fortanately, I like to learn new things, so I enjoy this moment very much.

2. My personality

I usually think so deeply and cannot stop to answer before I think I get a right answer. Time  management is very hard for me.  I usually do so much things at the same time, so I am distracted so much. However, I like to connect all things together to create new things. Thesedays, I feel my personality makes me so tired even though I like my personality.

What can I do for this? I cannot cut off, stop, decide something.

3. technology based society

Technology makes me do many things in multitasking style, convenient way and , rapid process.

Before I fully understand, I need to start something new every day. In educational life, I can learn and have many chances to encounter new technologies. However, I am not sure I can say I know them quite well. There are so many novices or people who are not interested in new technology, but in my learning, I am supposed to know them.

What is real one?

4. Language

Language is really crucial for learning and communication. Different language makes me crazy.

Why I start to learn in America with this painful experiences?

It is really painful, but it is worthwhile. I am enjoying overcoming my barriers: langauge, age, mom’s status.

I hope I can be helpful person for learners like me who have many barriers, but like exploring.

What about instructional design?

Is it really suitable for me and my life style or learning style?

The question of discussion leads me to anwsering in two paragraphs?  My questions would be considered and answered in the discussion period? Why I forgot every thing I already read when I am doing the posting writing.

The instructional design supports my memory processing?