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Model of online learning April 19, 2010

Filed under: CECS 5510 Technology- based learning environments — Echang @ 8:07 pm

According to Community of Inquiry model which Anderson et al developed as a conceptual model of online learning (2000), teaching presence is one of critical components which can make meaningful learning results. Teaching presence can be created three components: design and organization of learning experience, encourage discourse, direct instruction.

  • Design and organization

Community of learning model: This model uses synchronous or asynchronous virtual class rooms on the campus classroom.

Independent study modelIt is for learners who work by themselves and learn at their own pace, so it is always selected for online learning. Depending on learners’ preferences and needs, it can be designed in paced or unpaced models.

  • Encourage discourse

Discourse creates the community inquiry and gives individuals to have chance to develop their own thoughts and articulate their opinions. In addition, learners get rid of their misconceptions.

To do this, e-teachers

Develop trust and safety in the electronic communication

Use icebreakers

Susan Levine (2002)

  1. Instructors start discussion with weekly based-posting.
  2. Instructors let students focus the questions regarding ongoing discussion.
  3. Instructors let students post at least two or more, reflecting what they learn from the lesson.
  4. Instructors let students contribute for discussion beyond a ditto.

Nada Dabbagh (2000)

  1. Discussion posting should be evenly distributed.
  2. Discussion should be a minimum of one paragraph and maximum of two paragraphs.
  3. Giving reasoning why you agree or disagree should be applied for discussion.
  4. Address questions as much as possible.
  5. Quote from the articles with page numbers.
  6.  Building threaded responses.
  7. Related, prior knowledge integration
  8. Proper etiquette should be used.


  • Direct instruction

Cognitive apprenticeship Model:

This model emphasizes teacher’s role for helping students in the context, providing instructional support to students. Through modeling-scaffolding-fading – coaching process, teacher shows expertise and supports students’ development of the knowledge.

Salmon’s five stage Model

This model emphasized teachers ‘role as a facilitators through 5 stage of learning.

As Anderson said in his conclusion, we are on early stage in technological and pedagogical development of online learning. All models suggested ideal methods or process of effective learning, each of them has some weakness in certain aspects. I think online learning will grow more student-centered learning. It means many prospective learners for online learning are different from traditional students and their needs and learning styles are various. To meet learners’ needs, online learning should be designed for learner-centered. In addition, I think formal (public) education and private education would be developed differently. For private education, it will develop social functions more than one of present. It means it is designed with independent study model, but the facilitating discourse component will be developed for current learners’ needs. For public education, community inquiry model is applied, considering learner paced environment and improving learners’ satisfaction. Future research and studies for online learning environment will be needed for revolution of technology engaged education.


discussion in online learning environment April 13, 2010

I think discussion has many benefits for online learning environment. I mean we get many benefits from not only having process of discussion but also having discussion itself.

With Salmon’s five step model, online learners can participate online discussion for several purposes. In first step, learners can learn how to access and get motivated to participate in discussion. In second stage, students can develop online socialization, building bridges between cultural, social, and learning environments. For third step, students can exchange information which is related to learning contents, discussing, overcoming misconceptions and misunderstandings. Anderson also emphasized its function not only creation of community inquiry, but also means of developing students’ thought and articulating their ideas (p350). Likewise, online discussion helps students’ learning from motivation to collaboration, bridging between gaps.

For my case, I check discussion first to have some ideas before reading or writing. From discussion, I can feel more connected with others or contents. However, sometimes, discussion doesn’t work very well because some barriers: time, language ability, or attitude.

For facilitating discussion, many suggestions for instructors were discussed in Anderson’s article. However, I was interested in posting suggestions which Nada Dabbagh offered. To know these recommendations would be much helpful for online learners in the beginning of the program. If we analyze the ongoing discussion and observe what would be barriers for each, discussion would be designed for more comfortable and satisfied condition.

Recommendations (Nada Dabbagh, 2000)

  1. Postings should be evenly distributed during the discussion period.
  2. Posting should be a minimum of one short paragraph and a maximum of two paragraphs.
  3. If you agree with a posting, then show supporting evidences from readings or examples.
  4. Address the questions as much as possible.
  5. Try to use quotes from the articles with page numbers.
  6. Create thread
  7. Bring in related prior knowledge
  8. Use proper etiquette.

Suggestion for improvement from student’s view

  1. Recommendation 1,2 would be dependent on the question. If the question is designed to develop thought process, students participate like that. The question requires a profound answer, students would be lost not managing it step by step from reading to develop their thoughts.
  2. Recommendation 3-6 would be essential to trigger more relevant replying.
  3. Recommendation 7 is good for students to develop their thoughts and connect what they learned. However, sometimes, it is very difficult for students to retrieve prior knowledge to connect with ongoing discussion. To do this, the discussion would be led in well-structured by instructors. If it is an ill-structured question ( open ended), retrieval cues can be found nearby.
  4.  Recommendation 8 is very important to communicate, but sometimes students feel different because of their cultural backgrounds.

I told some benefits of discussion, introduced some recommendations for posting and gave some improvement tips here. I think communication is crucial for effective learning, so discussion is an essential tool. However, more effective discussion, he components of discussion should be considered from students views as well as instructors views.

Then think about why I am always late?

I am really sick and tired about being late. Every week, I plan and plan, but it never work as planned.

What is wrong with me? I have been thought this issue for long time.

1. Cultural difference

I have never learned in western educational system where discussion or analysis based educaion occurs.

I am not accustomed to arrange my thought and reply in short time. My thought is growing while I am thinking about answering. then I get lost very easily. Therefore, I like to learn how to organize my thoughts and cut off distractions and unnecessary process. In addition, I am a returning student who are not familiar with technology -based education environment. Fortanately, I like to learn new things, so I enjoy this moment very much.

2. My personality

I usually think so deeply and cannot stop to answer before I think I get a right answer. Time  management is very hard for me.  I usually do so much things at the same time, so I am distracted so much. However, I like to connect all things together to create new things. Thesedays, I feel my personality makes me so tired even though I like my personality.

What can I do for this? I cannot cut off, stop, decide something.

3. technology based society

Technology makes me do many things in multitasking style, convenient way and , rapid process.

Before I fully understand, I need to start something new every day. In educational life, I can learn and have many chances to encounter new technologies. However, I am not sure I can say I know them quite well. There are so many novices or people who are not interested in new technology, but in my learning, I am supposed to know them.

What is real one?

4. Language

Language is really crucial for learning and communication. Different language makes me crazy.

Why I start to learn in America with this painful experiences?

It is really painful, but it is worthwhile. I am enjoying overcoming my barriers: langauge, age, mom’s status.

I hope I can be helpful person for learners like me who have many barriers, but like exploring.

What about instructional design?

Is it really suitable for me and my life style or learning style?

The question of discussion leads me to anwsering in two paragraphs?  My questions would be considered and answered in the discussion period? Why I forgot every thing I already read when I am doing the posting writing.

The instructional design supports my memory processing?


creativity and problem solving

Filed under: CECS 5300 Cognitive Psychology — Echang @ 1:18 pm

Activity 3: Blog Reflection – Go here:
Where is the problem solving? What are you doing? What is the problem with this site? What creative solutions to this did you try?

It is very hard to read the site contents. When I visited this site first, I tried to find out what it was about. From the home page, there is explanation about Parepin. I selected the contents to copy and paste, and I could read them easily from the site. And then I tried to find who author is in the bottom, but I could not find any author information. The last page has a e-mail link to author, but I am very curious why the author made this site in this style?

First I try to google parepin I got the some information.


I have also related information with parepin. The rock group NIN is related to this? How?

Is it related to a kind of game? ARG?

year zero is game or song?

Why parepin is designed for gift?

Finally I found this.

From replying, commercial film or current trends use this puzzling people. The screen source is similar to the site. This is teaser advertising strategy for promotion I think.

Before I found out these things, I had strong feeling about  parepin and I seemed to be familiar with it. With contents, I felt very mysterious and little bit scary. However, the word itself , for me as a visual representation, was not new to me.

Now I found out that Brus and Jame were talking about in our forum. The title of the posting remains strongly in my mind. Before I read Ann’s blog, I didn’t realized, but now every thing is clear why I seemd to be familiar with it.


creativity and transferring my feeling April 12, 2010

Filed under: CECS 5300 Cognitive Psychology,Uncategorized — Echang @ 9:06 pm
Tags: ,


This activity reminds me a piggy bank long ago.

This is a piggy bank which a restaurant gave me for opening present. It didn’t look so nice to me. 

At that time, I and my daughter had dinner with my daughter’s friend and his mom. While we were talking, I found out the mom was so sensitive and worried too much about her son. Moreover, she tried to make brag of her son, blaming other people. I was so uncomfortable, but I could understand her like other moms. However, I concerned about her bias about other people as dangerous. Actually I became to be sick not to stop her because I could easily imagine how her bias would work for others. In other words, while I was very uncomfortable not being like her as a mom, I was also very uncomfortable not to criticize anything about her dangerous bias. I tried to balance righteousness with mom’s love at that time.

After coming home, I painted the piggy bank like this:

I remembered the children’s story about mom’s pure love. I wanted to keep this love not destroying others. Keeping it mind, I stayed several nights to paint the piggy bank.

When I talked with her, I identified the problem: my consciousness was fighting to be a good mom and to be a good neighbor. I wanted to express my love for my kid, not to destroy others’ feeling. I could see the piggy bank and it maintained the story which I wanted to keep a lesson to be balanced as a good mom and a good neighbor. I recalled the story about mom’s love and connected it with the piggy bank. I could notice shape of the piggy can fit the mom and baby picture. Then I painted it. I have a piggy bank, and it has a story which can be a kind of retrieval cue of the lesson on that day. I wanted to get rid of the comfortable feeling of that day or transfer it into pleasant memory, so I wanted to visualize the change of my feeling on the material which I got that day.

Whenever I see this piggy bank, it reminds me how I felt and learned a lesson that day.

Just like this, I am trying to transfer my feelings when I studying in online learning environment which I have never experienced into pleasant or positive feelings to help other prospective students in my future life.


Communication skills for the project November 10, 2009

Filed under: 5210 class — Echang @ 6:14 pm

Communication is very important for modern society. With web 2.0 technology, an individual can facilitate himself more effective in living in the fast changed world. We have experienced the explosion of the information. Now we have more and more collaborating technology. To use this technology, we need to be very active communicator. But how?

Communicate technology can save time. It doesn’t mean that we need spending less time to communicate, but it means that we can spend more time to communicate each other saving extra meetings which take place at the same time at the same place. However, people misunderstand how they communicate through communication technology.

We need to pay attention proper attitudes and skills of communication. Why we just want to save communication time as short as possible? We need to be more active and considerate to others through the convenient technology.

Now how I can be considerate for my members to collaborate for our project? Be patient!!  Be constructive! Be active!!